Strategy and framework

Biodiversity and conservation
Sustainable Development: Green Economy / Climate Change / Air Quality / SEAs / EIAs
Chemicals and Waste Management 
Oceans and Coasts: Blue Economy / Operation Phakisa /  Marine / Fisheries
 Legal /law enforcement and corporate affairs


Chemicals and Waste 



National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) Inception Phase


All DANIDA sponsored projects have a formal Inception Phase. During this phase the parties responsible for project implementation review, "fine-tune" and if necessary recommend some revision of conditions laid down in the project document and the project implementation plan. This Inception Report describes the proposed changes to the project document that is ultimately to become an amendment to the inception report.

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 Advanced Integrated Solid Waste Management (AISWM) 

Advanced Integrated Solid Waste Management (AISWM) is the process of advancing waste management practices up the hierarchy away from landfill and towards creating energy, recycling, composting, reuse and reduction. AISWM does not necessarily demand the use of sophisticated and expensive technology; rather it involves a blend of management systems and appropriate technologies that succeed in sustainably diverting waste away from landfill. This document focuses on the financial aspects of developing and operating different types of advanced waste treatment facilities and provides an overview of the financial implications of moving away from landfill and towards AISWM systems. Benchmark cost ranges and breakdowns are included for different technologies and guidance on preparing a business case (including planning and financial analysis) for AWT systems is provided.

Appropriate Technology for Advanced Waste Treatment- Guideline

Recognising the Informal Waste Sector in Advanced Waste Treatment

Financial implications of advanced waste treatment


Advanced Integrated Solid Waste Management (AISWM)



National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) 

The National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS) is a legislative requirement of the National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008 (Act No. 59 of 2008), the “Waste Act”. The purpose of the NWMS is to achieve the objects of the Waste Act. Organs of state and affected persons are obliged to give effect to the NWMS.





Circular Economy Guideline

This guideline focuses on the transition to a circular economy (CE) in the waste sector in South Africa. The guideline places emphasis on materials flow and the materials value chain, which is just one aspect of a wider circular economy. A circular economy approach, in turn, is just one of several ways to achieve a green economy through sustain-able consumption and production. 





Oceans and Coasts / Operation Phakisa / Marine / Fisheries



South Africa’s second National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (NPOA-Sharks II)

South Africa’s marine ecosystems, spanning from the subtropical waters of the Mozambique Channel to the polar waters of the Prince Edward Islands, harbour one of the most diverse shark, ray, skate and chimaera faunas in the world. South Africa is home to nearly 200 species of these cartilaginous fishes (also known as chondrichthyans), and additional species continue to be discovered. For the purpose of this document the term “sharks” is used to refer to all chondrichthyans. Sharks form an integral part of South Africa’s marine biota and their importance for the ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

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The Updated User Friendly Guide to South Africa’s Integrated Coastal Management Act

The objective of this Guide was therefore to make the ICM Act accessible to coastal practitioners and interested parties concerned with specific details and applications of the Act to such an extent that it becomes standard reference material for information on coastal management in South Africa. The Guide was a ‘translation’ of the ICM Act into everyday language while, at the same time, presenting the contents in such a way as to assist the reader to find and understand the appropriate information.

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Durban Bay Estuarine Management Plan

It is an exciting time to present the Durban Bay (Port of Durban) Estuarine Management Plan 2016, as required by the National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act, 2008 and the National Estuarine Management Protocol, 2013. This estuarine bay is an exceptional estuary. It is the leading estuarine port in terms of it support of not only the nation's economy, but the southern hemisphere at large.



A summary guide to South Africa’s Integrated Coastal Management Act


The purpose of this guide is to introduce you to the ICM Act’s objectives and its relevance to various coastal stakeholders. This guide also explains the purpose of each chapter and provides a summary of the content of each chapter of the Act. This guide is the first in a series of informative Guidelines that are being developed to complement the ICM Act.




A User-friendly Guide to the Intgrated Coastal Management Act of South Africa

The objective of this Guide is therefore to make the ICM Act accessible and applicable to coastal practitioners and interested parties concerned with specific details and applications of the Act, to such an extent that it becomes standard reference material for information on coastal management in South Africa. This Guide is a “translation” of the ICM Act into everyday language while, at the same time, presenting the contents in such a way as to assist the reader to find and understand the appropriate information.



Coastal Oil Spill Contingency Plan: No. 1: West Coast Zone


This Coastal Oil Spill Contingency Plan covers the area for the West Coast Zone, in the Northern Cape and Western Cape Provinces. This Zone extends from the Orange River in the north, southwards along the Atlantic seaboard to just north of Elandsbaai. The Orange River forms the boundary with Namibia in the north.




Draft Orange River Mouth Ramsar Site Strategic Estuarine Management Plan

The Orange River Mouth Ramsar site is situated between the towns of Oranjemund and Alexander Bay and forms the border between South Africa and Namibia. The estuary has an area of approximately 2,500 ha. It is a delta type river mouth, comprising a channel system between sand banks, a tidal basin, the river mouth and the salt marsh on the south bank. The extent of tidal exchange extends as far as the Ernest Oppenheimer Bridge, approximately 13 km upstream. 



A manual for rural freshwater agriculture

"If water is available to grow fish, aquaculture offers more choice than farming on land. This is because there is almost always a suitable species of fish that can be cultured in the available conditions. However, it is important that only species with requirements compatible with the region’s environmental conditions are cultured. For example, trying to grow a coldwater species such as trout in warm water will not work; however, tilapia or catfish would do well in warm water".

This project was formulated to address a number of issues, such as developing provincial aquaculture strategic plans, revitalising state hatcheries, training of extension officers, and the development of a manual to complement the training. The manual is not only intended for the training of extension officers, but is also resource material to be used in the field when interacting with farmers.




National Coastal Management Programme of South Africa (NCMPSA)

A CMP is a policy directive for the management of the coastal zone, inclusive of strategies and plans for the effective implementation of the ICM Act that will enable organs of state to plan accordingly, to set a course for the environmental future of a nation by addressing the resolution of current management problems and user-conflicts (due to the wide variety of activities and uses of the coast), as well as the long-term development and management of the coastline. 



Prince Edward Islands Management Plan

The purpose of this management plan is to ensure the ongoing protection and conservation of the Prince Edward Islands by providing a comprehensive set of provisions for management. The management plan provides both background information and detailed guidance on environmental practice on the islands and should therefore be read by every visitor to the islands.


National Strategy for the Safety and Security of Rhinoceros Populations in South Africa



South Africa's National Coastal Management Programme


This document presents South Africa's National Coastal Management Programme (NCMP) under the National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act (Act No. 24 of 2008) (ICM Act) for the period 2013 to 2017. Coastal zones throughout the world have historically been among the most heavily exploited areas because of their rich resources.

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National Coastal Management Programme (NCMP) report


Legal /law enforcement and corpoare affairs




Guideline on the administration of appeals

The National Appeals Regulations, 2014 has repealed the various appeal regulations currently in effect in terms of NEMA and the SEMAs, and provides for a single appeal process under section 43 of the National Environmental Management Act, 1998 against a decision taken by any person acting under a power delegated by the Minister or MEC. 



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Corporate Affairs



Annexure A: SIP 19 Initial Component Descriptions

Detailed decriptions of the initial set of SIP 19 components/ projects reflected in the Minister's approved SIP 19 Description.  

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SIP 19: Ecological Infrastructure for Water Security  

An overview of a proposed Strategic Integrated Project (SIP) aimed at improving South Africa's water resources and other environmental goods and services through the conservation, protection, restoration, rehibilitation and/or maintenance of key ecological infrastructure.  

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Human Capital Development Strategy Environmental Sector

A systems approach to skills development to support the Environmental Sector Strategic Plan

This Human Capital Development Strategy (HCDS) arises out of the constitutional imperative for a clean, healthy environment that benefits current and future generations, and the impetus to strengthen opportunities associated with a green economy for South Africa. Its time frame is 2009-2014, which is aligned with the MTSF of 2009-2014. The MTSF prioritises skills development in South Africa, and emphasises the importance of quality in the education, training and skills development process.

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Environment Sector Research, Development and Evidence Framework

An approach to enhance science-policy interface and evidence-based policy making

This document addresses the need for a common framework for the collection of solid evidence that can be used in support of environment sector policy decisions and for the achievement of sector priorities. In response to the pressing environmental issues of our times the framework is seeking to develop a more rigorous approach that gathers, critically appraises and uses high quality research evidence to inform policy-making and professional practice.

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National Environmental Impact Assessment and Management Strategy (EIMS)

The purpose of the EIAMS process is to facilitate a participatory process in order to compile a strategy that gives effect to the objectives of integrated environmental management as contained in Section 23 of NEMA within the context of the principles of sustainable development (Section 2 of NEMA) .   read more... read more




Environmental Sector Skills Plan (ESKP)

The Environmental Sector Skills Plan(ESSP) describes the current status quo with regard to demand and supply of environmental skills, and provides the best available information on scarce and critical skills in the sector at present from a supply and demand perspective.




South African Manual for Outoor Advertising Control (SAMOAC)

The main aim of SAMOAC is to initiate and co-ordinate the control of outdoor advertising. It is aimed at minimising the impacts of outdoor advertising while maximising the benefits of this advertising medium at the same time. This first document was developed by the then Deaprtment of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) in 1998 in cooperation with the National Department of Transport. Up till now it was expected of the various controlling authorities to provide legal status to SAMOAC by means of appropriate legislation.




National Protected Areas Expansion Strategy (NPAES)

The NPAES highlights ways in which we can become more efficient and effective in allocating the scarce human and financial resources available for protected area expansion. It sets targets for protected area expansion, provides maps of the most important areas for protected area expansion, and makes recommendations on mechanisms for protected area expansion.




National Framework for Sustainable Development in South Africa (NFSDSA)

The national framework for sustainable development seeks to build on existing programmes and strategies that have emerged in the first 14 years of democracy. It aims to identify key, short, medium and long–term challenges in our sustainable development efforts, sets the framework for a common understanding and vision of sustainable development; and defines strategic focus areas for intervention.




Integrated Environmental Management Information Series (IEM)

The aim of this document series is to provide general information on techniques, tools and processes for environmental assessment and management. The material in this document draws upon experience and knowledge from South African practitioners and authorities, and published literature on international best practice.



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Woodlands and indigenous forest management



Urban greening strategy: a guideline for community forestry staff and discussion document for external stakeholders

Urban greening is an integrated approach to the planting, care and management of all vegetation in cities, towns, townships and informal settlements in urban and peri-urban areas. Urban greening in South Africa includes townships and informal settlements specifically because in the past these areas were disadvantaged in terms of planning for parks as well as tree planting in streets and open spaces.




A woodland strategy framework

The role of the Department in terms of woodlands have long been discussed and questioned. The National Forest Act and the White Paper on Sustainable Forest Development clearly indicate that woodlands are included in the national forestry policy. This document takes one step further in outlining what practically should be done to implement the policy in terms of woodlands. It provides broad outlines of programmes and functions that would be required and point out where woodlands should be incorporated into existing functions and programmes of the Department as well as where new functions should be established.




Systematic conservation planning for the forest biome of South Africa: Approach, methods and results of the selection of priority forests for conservation action.

This document has two broad goals: firstly, to present the principles, approach and results of a systematic conservation plan for the forest biome, and secondly, to provide the computer based information systems developed for indigenous forest conservation planning. This work has been commissioned by the UK Department for International Development on behalf of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. The target audience include forest scientists, managers, conservationists, regulators, and administrators involved with indigenous forests in South Africa. The aim of conservation planning is the selection of priority planning units for conservation action. In the narrow sense, this implies inclusion of those areas, identified by systematic planning as being highly irreplaceable, and essential for inclusion within a protected area network for achieving targets. In the broader sense, conservation action may include a range of different activities, both inside and out side of protected areas.




Forest management (FMU) level principles, criteria, indicators and standards

Natural forests must not be destroyed save in exceptional circumstances, where in the opinion of the Minister, a proposed new land use is preferable in terms of its economic, social or environmental benefits [NFA 3(3)(a)]. The participation of all interested and affected parties in environmental governance must be promoted and all people must have the opportunity to develop the understanding, skills and capacity necessary for achieving equitable and effective participation by vulnerable and disadvantaged persons must be ensured [NEMA 2(f)].




National level: Forest management (FMU) level principles, criteria, indicators and standards

Natural forests must not be destroyed save in exceptional circumstances, where in the opinion of the Minister, a proposed new land use is referable in terms of its economic, social or environmental benefits [NFA 3(3)(a)]. Forests must be developed and managed so as to promote the fair distribution of their economic, social, health and environmental benefits [NFA3 (3) c (iii)]. Forests must be developed and managed so as to advance persons or categories of persons disadvantaged by unfair discrimination [NFA 3 (3) c (vii)].



Small scale forestry



Agroforestry strategy framework for South Africa.

This strategy framework provides a summary of the literature review and policy review, followed by a summary of the key issues paper, highlighting key challenges for agroforestry development. The strategy framework provides a vision for agroforestry proposes a working definition of agroforestry for South Africa and defines key principles that should inform thinking when implementing the strategy. The strategy itself, which is made up of three themes: Creating the Enabling Environment, Knowledge Development and Putting Agroforestry into Practice. For each strategic theme there are a number of goals and for each goal, a set of objectives that are necessary for each goal to be achieved. Associated with the strategy is the implementation plan which provides detail on key actions and outputs from the strategy. Included in the implementation plan are indicators against which progress with implementing the strategy can be monitored.




Companion to the draft forest sector transformation charter: first draft for presentation to stakeholders​

The Forest Sector makes a major contribution to the South African economy. The commercial plantation resource of some 1.33 million hectares forms the basis for a well-developed, highly integrated and diversified forest products industry in South Africa. The fibre sub-sector is dominated by a small number of large, corporate enterprises that are involved in the capital-intensive pulp, paper and composite board industries. These industries are characterised by their backward linkages into plantation forestry, motivated by the need to secure reliable roundwood supply. These, together with a small number involved in saw milling, own 58.8% of the plantation forest resource. A larger number of medium and emerging enterprises is located in the sub-sectors of growers, forestry contractors, sawmilling, pole treatment, charcoal manufacturing and paper processing.




Draft strategy: Framework for forestry enterprise development​

The purpose of this paper is to present a draft FED strategy framework that sets out broad guidelines for FED support and identifies priority strategy themes to be developed further as a separate strategy initiatives. FED requires the active support of a number of role-players, ranging from land holding communities and small-scale entrepreneurs to private sector companies and different government agencies. Therefore the draft strategy presented in this paper is not intended to be a departmental strategy, but as a sector strategy in which the department plays a leading role. Obviously, such a strategy would need to be developed in consultation with the various role-players. This draft strategy framework, together with the companion Key Issues Paper on Forest Enterprise Development is presented as a first step by the department in developing an FED strategy.




Eastern Cape biodiversity conservation plan (ECBCP)

This Handbook contains a short description of how the ECBCP biodiversity priorities were identified, an explanation of the land use guidelines in the ECBCP, and userfriendly guidelines for using the electronic decision support system of the ECBCP. More information is available from the ECBCP Technical Report (Berliner, D. & Desmet, P. 2007). The ECBCP addresses the urgent need to identify and map critical biodiversity areas and priorities for conservation in the Province. It also provides land use planning guidelines, recommending biodiversity-friendly activities in priority areas. The ECBCP is intended for use by technical users and decision-makers in the spheres of planning, development and environment. Mapped information can be used both reactively and strategically to guide future development away from sensitive and priority biodiversity areas.



Forestry regulation and oversight



Methods and procedures for the selection of champion trees in  South Africa for protection in terms of the National Forests Act of 1998 (Act 84 of 1998)

This report deals with assigning special status to extraordinary single trees and groups of trees in South Africa, here referred to as ‘Champion’ trees. The report proposes an objective methodology for determining champion status. Biological attributes, age of tree and heritage significance are the key parameters for evaluating champion status. Legal provisions elsewhere are also a key consideration in the methodology. The report also spells out a process by which stakeholders can suggest certain trees that should be on the champion tree list (application process), as well as evaluation procedures for the technical review of the champion tree list.




State of forests report 

The purpose of this report is: to provide the public with information with which to assess progress in achieving SFM; to provide policy makers with a report as required under the NFA, Part 2, section 6(3); to report on forestry progress in translating the Manifesto, a solemn declaration by the government of its intentions and medium term strategic framework (MTSF), a framework to guide government’s programme in the electoral mandate period into outcomes and; to recommend to policy makers certain proposals to create an enabling environment to help the Forestry branch to meet relevant outcomes as enshrined in government’s policy of a developmental state.