Research | Climate change, green economy and sustainable development

Environment sector research, development and evidence framework
Climate change, green economy and sustainable development
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National GHG Inventory report (2000-2020), 2022
 

This report documents South Africa’s submission of its national greenhouse gas inventory for the year 2020. It also reports on the GHG trends for the period 2000 to 2020. It is in accordance with the guidelines provided by the UNFCCC and follows the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) and IPCC Good Practice Guidance (GPG) (IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2003; IPCC, 2014). This report provides an explanation of the methods (Tier 1, 2 and 3 approaches), activity data and emission factors used to develop the inventory. In addition, it assesses the uncertainty and describes the quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities. Quality assurance for this GHG inventory was undertaken by independent reviewers. In this inventory the Second Assessment Report (SAR) (IPCC, 1996) GWP’s were applied. This is consistent with the previous inventory for 2017 (DFFE, 2020) and is compliant with UNFCCC reporting requirements. 

» download report [PDF - 8.5 mb]
 

 

 

The South African National Climate Change Response Policy – an evidence-based policy-making case study​, 2020

Peter Lukey

South Africa’s National Climate Change Response Policy was published as a white paper in October 2011. Although the policy development process is often cited as an example of evidence-based policymaking due to the science-policy partnerships and engagements that underpinned the entire development process, the process has not been fully documented. This paper attempts to document the entire process and analyse it as an example of evidence-based policy-making.

» download report [PDF - 774 kb]
 

Green Economy for Sustainable Development Evidence Framework

 

     

    Addressing specific elements of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation​) in South Africa

     

    Addressing specific elements of REDD+ in South Africa​ - component 1, 2020

    South Africa has taken a progressive approach in its response to climate change. Following early ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the country published a National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRP) (DEA 2011) and has gradually developed a substantial foundation on which to base future policy and measures. A particular opportunity that has been identified is the implementation of a national programme aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).

    » download report [PDF - 4.31 mb]
     

    Addressing Specific Elements of REDD+ in South Africa​ - Component 1

     

     

    Addressing specific elements of REDD+ in South Africa​ - component 2, 2020
     

    Climate change has been identified as a clear threat to South Africa, and the country has decided to address it in a proactive and progressive manner. Following early publication of a National Climate Change Response Policy (NCCRP) (DEA 2011), a substantial foundation on which to base future policy and measures has been developed.
    A particular opportunity that has been identified is the implementation of a national programme aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).

    » download report [PDF - 4.53 mb]
     

    Addressing Specific Elements of REDD+ in South Africa​ - Component 2

     

     

    Addressing specific elements of REDD+ in South Africa​ - component 3, 2020
     

    South Africa has taken a progressive approach in its response to climate change. Following early ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the Country published a National Climate Change Response White Paper in 2011 (DEA 2011) and has gradually developed a substantial foundation on which to base future policy and measures. A particular opportunity that has been identified is the implementation of a national programme aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).

    » download report [PDF - 5.65 mb]
     

    Addressing Specific Elements of REDD+ in South Africa​ - Component 3

     

     

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    Strategic environmental assessment for wind and solar photovoltaic energy

     

    Strategic environmental assessment for wind and solar photovoltaic energy in South Africa, 2019

    Much like its predecessor, the Phase 2 Wind and Solar PV SEA aims to identify geographical areas best suited for the roll-out of wind and solar PV energy projects. In addition, one of the main aims of the SEA was to identify previously mined areas close to areas of the country with highest energy demand, where large-scale renewable projects can occur in order to contribute towards rehabilitation of mined areas and in support of job creation in the areas.

    » download report [PDF - 39.34 mb]
    » download appendices: specialist studies document [PDF - 23.25 mb]
     

     

     

    Strategic environmental assessment for wind and solar photovoltaic energy in South Africa, 2015

    The wind assessment domain for this first iteration of the SEA is based on the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) coverage available at the time of commencing the SEA (i.e. parts of Northern Cape, Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces). The solar PV assessment domain was informed by the location of the majority of existing solar PV project applications at the commencement of the SEA and includes the five provinces of Northern Cape, Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Free State, and North West. The SEA process is intended to be iterative, with the study being expanded to redefine and identify additional REDZs as new data and learnings become available.

    » download report [PDF - 83.2 mb]
    » download appendix A: specialist studies document [PDF - 88.93 mb]
    » download appendix B: consultation process document [PDF - 42.72 mb]
     

     

     

    South Africa's annual climate change reports

     

    Unlocking barriers and opportunities for land-use based climate change mitigation activities in South Africa, 2017 

    The current document provides the first ever proposal for an approach to implement rehabilitation at national scale. On the one hand, the report explores opportunities that can be harnessed through the rehabilitation of the targeted systems in this study. On the other hand, it also identifies the potential barriers and how to unlock these in pursuit of ‘intact working landscapes as the foundation for the development of rural society and downstream economies’.

    » download report [PDF - 19.32 mb]
     

     

     

    South Africa's 3rd Climate Change report 2017

    This 3rd Climate Change Report reflects on the progress made in responding to climate change, profiles ongoing efforts to this end as a basis for triggering even more ambitious climate action and chronicles key advances in the tracking of South Africa’s transition towards a climate resilient society and a low carbon economy.

    » download report [PDF - 8.67 mb]
     

     

     

    South Africa's Second National Climate Change Report, 2016

    This 2016/17 report includes chapters on (i) quantifying and profiling the impact of ongoing or recently completed mitigation actions (ii) progress in the work on climate change flagship programmes (iii) lessons learn from the recent drought phenomenon (iv) progress in the development of the national adaptation strategy and desired adaptation outcomes (v) progress in establishing a credible national tracking system for key climate change actions in the country, etc.

    » download report [PDF - 4.7 mb]
     

     

     

    South Africa's first annual Climate Change report, 2016 
     

    The objective of this report is to communicate the progress and lessons learnt in tracking South Africa’s transition towards a climate resilient society and a lower carbon economy. As a knowledge product, this report aims to target people and institutions involved in technical, coordination and policy aspects of climate change, including those undertaking work relevant to these aspects of climate change. This annual report is seen as part of the broader programme to communicate regular reporting of climate change relevant information to the South African audience.

    » download reports [web page]
     

    South Africa's first annual climate change report

     

       

      Carbon related

       

      National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment 2020 (NTCSA 2020)

      The National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment 2020 updates the NTCSA 2014. It includes a number of improvements in core datasets and methodology, as well as providing users with an easily usable, public domain modelling interface that runs as a plugin in the QGIS open source Geographical Information System (GIS) program. 

      » download the technical report [PDF - 10.03 mb]
      » download the summary report [PDF - 3.18 mb]
       

       

       

      Policy brief: towards a policy on indigenous bush encroachment in South Africa, 2019

       

      Bush encroachment entails increased abundance of indigenous woody vegetation in the grassland and savanna biomes. In South Africa, where these biomes make up 27.9% and 32.5% of the land surface area, respectively, there has been a significant increase in tree cover since national-scale aerial photography was first undertaken in the 1940s.

      » download report [PDF - 4.27 mb]
       

       

       

      Towards a policy on indigenous bush encroachment in South Africa

      Bush encroachment entails increases in the abundance of indigenous woody vegetation in the grassland and savanna biomes. In South Africa, where these biomes make up 27.9% and 32.5% of the land surface area, respectively, there has been a significant increase in tree cover since national-scale aerial photography was first undertaken in the 1940s. The aims of this study were to review the extent and causes of the problem in South Africa, broadly evaluate its impacts, determine the policy stance that South Africa should take towards bush encroachment and identify appropriate policy responses.

      » download report [PDF - 14.36 mb]
       

       

       

      The South African Carbon Sinks Atlas 2017 

       

      The Carbon Sinks Atlas (CSA) is a web-based data and information tool aimed at providing spatial distribution of carbon stocks and fluxes across South Africa and it is the first of its kind. In this first edition, the CSA details soil and vegetation’s carbon content in the form of carbon data layers (maps) and metadata, based on the National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA).

      » download report [PDF - 6.13 mb]
       

       

       

      Integration of the Carbon Tax and Carbon Budgets in South Africa, 2017

      This paper provides recommendations for combining the carbon budget with the carbon tax to support delivery of South Africa’s emissions reduction targets beyond 2020. While both the carbon tax and carbon budget approach have merits, economic theory would suggest that there could be risks associated with applying both instruments to the same emissions at the same time.

      » download report [PDF - 1,834 kb]
       

      Freight Shift from Road to Rail report

       

       

      South African National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment, 2015

      The National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA) is a first of its kind for South Africa and was commissioned following a directive from the National Climate Change Response Policy (NCCRP). Given this, the aim was to assess the national carbon sinks in relation to afforestation, forest restoration, wetlands, agricultural practices and urban greening.

      Research Synopsis Report      

       

      South African National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment

       

       

      Carbon Offset Standards and Methodologies Project Steering Committee, 2015

      The National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA) for South Africa was primarily undertaken to improve our understanding of the distribution of carbon stocks and fluxes, equally important to identify landbased mitigation opportunities that can avoid or decrease emissions from the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector.

      » download report [PDF - 3.7 mb]
       

      Carbon Offset Standards and Methodologies

       

      Current carbon stock estimation capability for South African commercial forest plantations, 2014
       
      The South African forest plantation industry requires country-­specific carbon accounting/ estimation methods that are compatible with a wide range of existing local and/or regional forest plantation inventory and management systems. For this reason the Institute for Commercial Forestry Research (ICFR) was commissioned by the department to conduct a scoping study to assess data availability for the development of local carbon estimation equations for all commercial plantation sites and species within the three major genera grown (i.e. pine, eucalypt and wattle), as well as the availability and access to grower activity data.
       
      » download report [PDF - 6.76 kb]
       

      Carbon stock estimation capability

       

         

        Interface between carbon budget approach and carbon tax final report, 2013

        This report begins with the premise that a carbon tax will be introduced as the mainstay of South Africa's carbon mitigation effort. The purpose of this report is to then consider how QBIs can be combined with a carbon tax to support the effective and efficient achievement of DEROs. The report, thus, does not deal with the design of overall climate change mitigation policy in South Africa, but rather with a very specific subset of mitigation policy.

        » download report [PDF - 2.1 mb]
         

        The interface between a carbon budget approach and a carbon tax - a final report

         

         

         

        Measuring DEA's carbon footprint - 2012/2013 Carbon Footprint Report

        This report presents the carbon footprint of the department in tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions for the financial year 2012/13. In the current 2012/13 carbon footprint report, 16 different emission sources (categorised under three scopes) were taken into account, calculated and verified.  

        download report [2.55 mb]
         

         

           

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          Climate change monitoring and evaluation

           

          The National Climate Change Response Monitoring and Evaluation System Framework, 2015
           

          The NCCRP notes that the measurement and monitoring of climate change responses are critical in ensuring their effective implementation, and that South Africa, through the coordination of the department, will design and publish the country’s Climate Change Response Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) System. Details of this M&E system are outlined in specific sections of the NCCRP.

          » download report [PDF - 1.79 mb]
           

          South Africa's first annual climate change report

           

           

          A National Climate Change Monitoring and Evaluation system of the AFOLU Sector, 2015
           
          The diverse nature of the AFOLU sector requires a robust monitoring system which will allow for the structured collection, collation and dissemination of information. This study recognised the strategic importance of aligning the AFOLU M&E system with the National Climate Change Response Monitoring and Evaluation System Framework. As a result the proposed AFOLU M&E system consists of three components that should be implemented in the short term and which are directly linked to the above-mentioned framework. These three components are a data collection platform, specific resources to enable data collation and data processing to share information. The purpose of the AFOLU M&E system is to provide a centralised point where data can be submitted and processed to understand and communicate emission trends within the AFOLU sector. 
          » download report [PDF - 2.6 mb]
           

          A National Climate Change Monitoring and Evaluation system of the AFOLU Sector

           

             

            Greenhouse gas (GHG) related 

             

            National GHG Inventory Report South Africa, 2017

            This report documents South Africa’s submission of its national greenhouse gas inventory for the year 2017. It also reports on the GHG trends for the period 2000 to 2017. It is in accordance with the guidelines provided by the UNFCCC and follows the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) and IPCC Good Practice Guidance (GPG) (IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2003; IPCC, 2014). This report provides an explanation of the methods (Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches), activity data and emission factors used to develop the inventory. In addition, it assesses the uncertainty and describes the quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities. Quality assurance for this GHG inventory was undertaken by independent reviewers.

            » download report [PDF - 22.4 mb]
             

             

               

              Towards the development of a GHG emissions baseline for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector in South Africa, 2016 
               

              The purpose of this report is to provide the first emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector in South Africa. Due to the complexity of the AFOLU sector, the agriculture and land sub-sector baselines were developed separately but reported as one combined baseline. Furthermore, the study also developed baselines for each province as part of enhancing our understanding of emissions dynamics at a finer scale.

              » download report [PDF - 3.7 mb]
               

              Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) research report

               

               

              Greenhouse Gas National Inventory Report, South Africa 2000 – 2015

              This report documents South Africa's submission of its national greenhouse gas inventory for the year 2015. It also reports on the GHG trends for the period 2000 to 2015. It is in accordance with the guidelines provided by the UNFCCC and follows the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC, 2006) and IPCC Good Practice Guidance (GPG) (IPCC, 2000; IPCC, 2003; IPCC, 2014).

              » download document [PDF - 11.4 mb]
               

               

               

              Greenhouse Gas National Inventory Report, South Africa 2000 – 2012 

              This report has been compiled for the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA ) in response to South Africa's obligation to report its greenhouse (GHG) emissions to international climate change bodies. The report is prepared in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This inventory was compiled by making use of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IP CC) 2006 Excel spread sheet guidelines and the Good Practice Guidance.

              » download document [PDF - 8.1 mb]
               

               

               

              GHG Inventory for South Africa 2000 - 2010

              This report has been compiled for the department in response to South Africa's obligation to report their greenhouse (GHG) emissions to international climate change bodies. The report is prepared in accordance with the United Nations Framework Convention on  Climate Change (UNFCCC)...  

              » download report [3.2 mb]

               

               

               

              GHG Inventory for South Africa 2000 - 2010

               

               

               

               

               

               

               

              Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with Shale Gas Report, 2014 

               

              Environmental Resources Management Southern Africa (Pty)Ltd (ERM) was commissioned to assist the Department ofEnvironmental Affairs (DEA) in understanding the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile associated with thelife cycle of shale gas extraction, production and use. At the time of publishing, uncertainty exists with regard to the GHG emissions profile, and possible available options for the use of potential shale gas reserves in South Africa.

              » download report [PDF - 5.33 mb]
               

              Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with Shale Gas

               

               

               

               

              Greenhouse Gas Improvement Programme, 2016

               
              Greenhouse Gas Improvement Programmes (GHGIP) refers to a series of sector-specific projects aimed at improving the quality and accuracy of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.  The GHGIP is a result of a collaborative effort by the Department of Environmental Affairs working with other relevant agencies and industry sectors. A majority of projects are donor funded with clear objectives and targets primarily focusing on the improvement of estimation methodologies, activity data and development of country-specific emission factors.  The sectors covered in the GHGIP are the Energy Sector, Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU), Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU).    
               
              Download reports:
               

              Greenhouse Gas Improvement Programme

               

               

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              Climate change adaptation, policy and analysis 

               

              The Long-Term Adaptation Flagship Research Programme (LTAS), 2016

              The Long-Term Adaptation Flagship Research Programme (LTAS) responds to the South African National Climate Change Response White Paper by undertaking climate change adaptation research and scenario planning for South Africa and the Southern African sub-region. The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) is leading the process in collaboration with technical research partner the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) as well as technical and financial assistance from the Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).

              Phase 2 of the Long-Term Adaptation Flagship Research Programm include the following:

               

              The Long-Term Adaptation Flagship Research Programme (LTAS)

               

               

              Sustainability of Decentralised Renewable Energy Systems report, 2016
               

              The overall objective of the project was to assess the impact of decentralised renewable energy on livelihoods in South Africa and to identify measures to address issues that limit the sustainability of decentralised renewable projects by reviewing a selection of South African and international case studies. The purpose of the study was to stimulate the sustainable roll out of decentralised renewable energy system solutions to mitigate climate change and provide energy access where there is no mains electricity; the ultimate goal being to drive sustainable development by informing government policy and strategy on these issues.

              » download report [PDF - 2.5 mb]
               

              Sustainability of Decentralised Renewable Energy Systems report

               

               

              Facilitation of large-scale uptake of alternative transport fuels in South Africa – the case for biogas, 2015
               
              The department has completed the study to facilitate the large-scale uptake of alternative transport fuels in South Africa – the case for biogas. The main objective of this study is to establish an understanding of the economic and practical potential for CBG as an alternative transport fuel and GHG mitigation measure. This could provide the basis for the further development of policies promoting biogas for transport and the emergence of a national CBG industry.
              » download report [PDF - 5.1 mb]

              Biogas report

               

               

               

              Assessment of the potential to produce biochar and its application to South African soils as a mitigation measure, 2015

              Biochar is gradually gaining interest globally as a climate change mitigation measure in the agriculture forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector. It is produced in the absence of oxygen through a process called pyrolysis, mainly from biomass material. However, a host of other materials (feedstock) can be used. Several studies in different areas across the world have demonstrated that deploying biochar in soils results in benefits that include enhanced agricultural yield, a reduction in leaching of nutrients, a reduction in soil acidity, increased soil water retention and a reduction in fertilizer use and irrigation requirements.

              » download report  [PDF - 1,987 kb]
               

              Assessment of the potential to produce biochar

               

               

              Freight Shift from Road to Rail report, 2015

              BThe department has recently completed a mitigation potential analysis (MPA) for South Africa aimed at identifying priority mitigation measures which will significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One of the most favourable measures, taking both the extent of mitigation of emissions and the associated social and economic impacts in to consideration is the shift of freight from road to rail. However, the department has retained a concern over the possible job losses caused by the road to rail freight shift, primarily as rail freight is less labour intensive. Therefore this research was commissioned to assess the impact on jobs and, more broadly, on the economy as a whole..

              » download report  [PDF - 2.7 mb]
               

              Assessment of the potential to produce biochar

               

               

              Climate Change Adaptation Plans for South African Biomes, 2015

              The department is driving a national process, with participation of provincial and local government and civil society, to develop climate change adaptation action plans for South African biomes. One of the initial steps is to establish a plan for identifying and prioritising adaptation actions which apply to the broad South African landscape, the ecosystems which occur within it, the species which make up those ecosystems and their ecosystem services such as food and water supply; climate and disease regulation; crop pollination and tourism opportunities provided by the landscapes, and the various economic activities which take place in and depend on those landscapes.   This has been called the 'Adaptation plan for South African Biomes'. A 'biome' is the highest level of ecosystem classification. This report covers the nine biomes that occupy most of the land area of South Africa.

              » download report  [PDF - 2.9 mb]
               

               

               

              Report on the Implementation Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Environmental Governance in the Mining Sector, 2015

              The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the relevance and effectiveness of the environmental governance legislation in mining and the implementation thereof in achieving its objective. The evaluation covers the period from the promulgation of the Minerals Act, 1991 (Act 50 of 1991) (the Minerals Act) up to the legislation in place as of March 2014. Given that amendments to the legislation were implemented on 8 December 2014, a post-script has been appended to the evaluation that details the context of these amendments and how they relate to the analysis and recommendations raised as part of this evaluation.

              » download report  [PDF - 1,607 kb]
               

               

               

              South Africa’s Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential Analysis, 2014
               
              A greenhouse gas mitigation potential analysis has been conducted for South Africa. The analysis has identified and analysed mitigation options in key economic sectors. In the process, an updated projection of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the future has been developed, along with marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) for key sectors and subsectors.  A socio-economic and environmental assessment of the identified mitigation options has also been conducted, leading to the development of national abatement pathways and an assessment of the wider macro-economic impacts of implementing a broad set of mitigation options.
               
              The suite of reports that make up South Africa's greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential analysis include the following:
               

               

               

              Climate Change Mitigation Policy Mainstreaming, 2014 
               

              This document provides a policy gap analysis of the alignment of existing legislation, policy, strategies, plans and regulatory frameworks (henceforth referred to as ‘policy documents’) in five key sectors with the National Climate Change Response Policy (NCCRP). The policy gap analysis shows the areas where alignment with identified NCCRP mitigation principles are lacking, and highlights priority areas to focus alignment efforts. The sectors considered are agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU), energy, industry, transport and waste. The success of policy documents in bringing about climate change mitigation stems from both the actions that they propose, and how well these actions have been designed. Consequently, the likely effectiveness of the mitigation elements identified in relevant policy documents in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is also considered.

              » download report [PDF - 3.7 mb]
               

              Sustainability of Decentralised Renewable Energy Systems report

               

               

              Issues raised during the Climate Change Summit 2009:  recurring areas of concern and/or uncertainty, which included climate finance; human resources and technology; adaptation; mitigation; and governance

               

                     
              Governance of climate change in South Africa [PDF- 670.61 kb]

               

              Scoping of the approximate climate change adaptation costs in several key sectors for South Africa up to 2050 [PDF - 605 kb]
              Synthesis of climate finance literature report to the DBSA [PDF - 1.77 mb] 
              Opportunities for and cost of mitigation in South African economy [PDF - 1.27 mb]
                     
              Environmental research and technologies in South Africa [PDF - 892.31 kb]
              High level consultation with finance sector on climate change and funding mechanisms [PDF - 104 mb]
              Financing climate change  [PDF - 723.71 kb]
              Institutional funding mechanisms: case study review [PDF - 783.22 kb]
               

               

              Green economy and sustainable development

               

              Multiple pathways to substainable development: Initial findings from Global South, 2015

              This report serves as a starting point to address the calls from Rio+20 and the Governing Council to share the South’s various experiences and national-level initiatives for transitioning to sustainable and socially inclusive economies. Four unique national initiatives – all taking place in countries in the South, and at different stages of implementation - are highlighted: Ecological Civilization in China, Sufficiency Economy in Thailand, Green Economy in South Africa, and Living Well in Bolivia. The four national approaches to sustainable development reflect the particular experiences, circumstances, and priorities of the countries that adopted them. They are representative of the broad spectrum of sustainable development approaches that exist today.

              » download report [PDF - 1,418 kb]
               

              Multiple pathways to substainable development: Initial findings from Global South

               

               

               

              The Green Economy Modelling Report of South Africa: A focus on Natural Resource Management, Agriculture, Transport and Energy sectors, 2013

              The present study was undertaken at the request of South’s Africa Department of Environmental Affairs. It presents a modelling exercise that compares a scenario of investments directed to “business-as-usual” (BAU) with scenarios of investments allocated to four critical sectors for a transition to a green economy in South Africa, namely: natural resource management, agriculture, transport and energy.

              » download report [PDF - 4.5 mb]
               

              Biogas report

               

               

               

              State of Air Report, 2005

              Cover page [567.49 kb]
              Foreword, contents and executive summary  [1.02 mb]
              Chapter 1: Introduction [712.94 kb]
              Chapter 2: Air quality and sustainable development [1.02 mb]
              Chapter 3: Air quality standards and objectives [1.04 mb]

               

               

               

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